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Shemesh, Rotem, et.al. 2016. Active packaging containing encapsulated carvacrol for control of
postharvest decay. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 118: 175 - 182.
Roughly, one-third of the food produced globally for human consumption is lost or wasted.
These losses occur at all stages of the food value chain and across all types of food. Active packaging
already plays a vital role in preventing wastage and further innovation is imperative to streamlining the
food supply chain. Herein, we present an antimicrobial packaging based on polyamide (Nylon 6),
containing a model essential oil (carvacrol). The volatile carvacrol molecules are encapsulated with
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which are naturally occurring aluminosilicate. The resulting polyamide
films had outstanding in vitro antifungal properties, with a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against
a wide range of fungal molds: Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium
expansum and Aspergillus niger. Furthermore, the active polyamide-based plastic bags were used for
fresh produce packaging and their fungicidal and/or fungistatic effects on postharvest pathogens of
cherry tomatoes, lychee and grapes were investigated. These in vivo experiments have resulted in
reduced decay development and significantly extended shelf life. The presented technology holds a
great potential for the development of custom-made active packaging for the food and postharvest
industries, in a global effort to reduce food loss and waste.
Keywords: /Active Packaging/ /Postharvest Storage/
Warning, Alexander, Ashim K. Datta, Jerry A. Bartz. 2016. Mechanistic understanding of temperature
driven water and bacterial infiltration during hydrocooling of fresh produce. Postharvest Biol.
Technol. 118: 159 -174.
Freshly harvested fruits and vegetables (produce) are chilled to extend their shelf life but the
chilling pro-cess increases opportunities for contamination by pathogenic bacteria carried by water
through openings such as stem scars. Using tomato as a representative system, a 3D porous medium
transport model is developed. The model simulates the transport of water vapor, liquid water, bacteria,
and energy in light of convection–diffusion processes driven by pressure gradients from condensation
inside as well as by water concentration gradients between the cooling water and that in the tomato.
Results show that increasing the rate of cooling (i.e., creating a higher temperature difference) increases
the rate of infiltration due to higher-pressure gradients. A higher temperature differential drives
bacteria further into the tomato. A less hydrated tomato will incur deeper and more extensive
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infiltration. Size, permeability, and diffusivity play a less significant role. The novel mechanistic
understanding our study provides should aid in designing safer hydrocooling processes.
Keywords: /Hydro Cooling/ /Food Safety/ /Fruits/ /Vegetables
Lee, JiHye, et.al. 2016. An adaptively controlled modified atmosphere container system for fresh
produce. Biosytems Eng. 148: 11 - 17.
Time-variable open/close cycles of a gas diffusion tube may serve as a means to supply the
desired gas transfer to attain a beneficial modified atmosphere (MA) in fresh produce containers.
Because the produce respiration contributing to the atmosphere modification changes over time,
adoption of real-time respiration in the open/close control of the tube may be an innovative tool to
maintain the container atmosphere. An adaptive control of the tube responding to the real-time
respiration of fresh produce was developed based on a simplified O2 mass balance to generate and
maintain the desired MA for the fresh produce. Here, the O2 concentration change in the initially closed
container before reaching the target value was used to calculate the respiration rate to determine the
starting value of the opening ratio of the cycle time and the average O2 concentration of each cycle after
reaching the target value once was used in the mass balance relationship to update the opening ratio for
the next cycle. The developed MA container system could attain the targeted O2 concentrations and the
expected desirable CO2concentrations for blueberries and spinach at steady state, helping to preserve
Keywords: /Modified Atmosphere/ /Blueberry/ /Spinach
Gao, Huijin, et.al. 2016. Analysis of resistance starch degradation in postharvest ripening of two banana
cultivars focus on starch structure and amylase. Postharvest Biol.Technol. 119: 1 – 8.
Bananas are well known as good sources of dietary energy, with high levels of sugar and starch.
To further analyze the starch-degradation mechanism in bananas, two species, Cavendish and Plantain,
were used to investigate the influences of hydrolases and granule structure on starch degradation.
Determination of the levels of resistant starch (RS), non-resistant starch (non-RS), total starch, and
amylose content showed that each starch component content decreased gradually during the fruit- ripening process in both Cavendish and Plantain. Compared to Cavendish, Plantain had a higher content
of total starch and RS, a faster starch-degradation rate, and a lower decrease in the ratio of RS/total
starch. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that the starch granules of Cavendish were
larger and more rounded than the smaller and ellipsoidal starch granules found in Plantain. Also, the
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analysis of gene expression suggested that b-amylases make a central contribution to starch
degradation in both species and highly up-regulated b-amylases were correlated with the faster starch- degradation rate in Plantain. Two a-amylases, one starch phosphorylase, and one starch debranching
enzyme were specifically up-regulated in Plantain, which might hydrolyse more non-RS compared with
Keywords: /Banana/ /Postharvest/ /Ripening/
Li, Dong, et.al. 2016. Involvement of energy metabolism to chilling tolerance induced by hydrogen
sulfide in cold stored banana. Food Chem. 208: 272 - 278.
In this study, the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on energy metabolism in postharvest banana
fruit underchilling stress was investigated. Banana fruit, fumigated with optimal concentration (0.5 mM)
of aqueous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) solution for 24 h, were initially stored at 7 ̊C for 14 d and 20 ̊C
for another 6 d. H2S treated banana fruit showed both higher value of firmness and Hue angle, as well as
lower value of electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ethylene production. These
indicated slower development of chilling injury compared with the control. Decrease in adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) and energy charge was not noticeable in H2S treated banana fruit. Moreover, the
activity of H+
-ATPase, cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH),
associated with energy metabolism, were significantly enhanced by H2S treatment. Therefore, it can be
deduced that H2S can potentially alleviate chilling development in banana fruit by increasing enzymes
activities, involved in energy metabolism, to maintain energy charge.
Keywords: /Banana/ /Chilling injury/
Lopez, Keyla, et.al. 2016. Investigation of handling practices for fresh produce and efficacy and
commercially available produce washes on removal of pathogens and natural microflora on
whole cantaloupe surfaces. Food Control. 68: 251 – 259.
The objectives of our study were to collect descriptive data of handling practices for fresh
produce and to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available washes for reducing pathogens and
natural microflora on whole cantaloupes. A total of 51 people answered a produce handling survey.
Information from the survey was used to develop two experiments. In one experiment, cantaloupes
were washed with water (control), 9% vinegar solution, or a commercial antimicrobial for fruit and
vegetables (CAFVT) for 2 min by using a continuous water motion system. Cantaloupe surfaces were
tested on day 0 for initial aerobic plate counts (APC); then wedges or cubes in refrigeration storage were
tested on days 1, 3, and 6 for APC. In a second experiment, Salmonella spp. (8.54 log10 CFU/ml) or
Listeria monocytogenes (8.52 log10 CFU/ml) inoculated cantaloupes were washed with cold tap water
(control) or a commercial produce wash (CPW) for 30, 60, or 120 s. APC populations for surfaces of
untreated and cantaloupes treated with water, 9% vinegar solution, or CAFVT were 3.88, 3.39, 3.01, and
2.98 log10 CFU/cm2, respectively. Cubes from treated cantaloupes reached populations between 6.2